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1000 Words Mag Twitter

The data also show clear increases in the total number of false political rumors during the 20 u. We asked them to label the rumors as true, false, or mixed on the basis of their research and to discard all rumors previously investigated by one of the fact-checking organizations. When we added bot traffic back into the analysis, we found that none of our main conclusions changedfalse news still spread farther, faster, deeper, and more broadly than the truth in all categories of information.

Mikolov, distributed representations of sentences and documents, in proceedings of the 31st international conference on machine learning (icml-14) s. A rumor cascade begins on twitter when a user makes an assertion about a topic in a tweet, which could include written text, photos, or links to articles online. Falsehood diffused farther and faster than the truth despite these differences, not because of them.

The results remained the same when we removed all tweet cascades started by bots, including human retweets of original bot tweets (see supplementary materials, section s8. The number of minutes it takes for false political and other false news cascades to reach any (e) depth and (f) number of unique twitter users. Numerous diagnostic statistics and manipulation checks validated our results and confirmed their robustness.

Standard errors were clustered at the rumor level (i. When we analyzed the diffusion dynamics of true and false rumors, we found that falsehood diffused significantly farther, faster, deeper, and more broadly than the truth in all categories of information kolmogorov-smirnov (k-s) tests are reported in tables s3 to s10. Mehta, a study of rumor control strategies on social networks, in proceedings of the 19th acm international conference on information and knowledge management political rumoring on twitter during the 2012 u.

The number of cascades that make up a rumor is equal to the number of times the story or claim was independently tweeted by a user (not retweeted). When we compared the diffusion dynamics of the true and false rumors that the annotators agreed on, we found results nearly identical to those estimated with our main data set (see fig. The entire data set is also available, from the same link, upon signing an access agreement stating that (i) you shall only use the data set for the purpose of validating the results of the mit study and for no other purpose (ii) you shall not attempt to identify, reidentify, or otherwise deanonymize the data set and (iii) you shall not further share, distribute, publish, or otherwise disseminate the data set.

We then specified a latent dirichlet allocation topic model ( ), with 200 topics and trained on 10 million english-language tweets, to calculate the information distance between the rumor tweets and all the prior tweets that users were exposed to before retweeting the rumor tweets. We investigated the differential diffusion of all of the verified true and false news stories distributed on twitter from 2006 to 2017. Rather than dening what constitutes news on the basis of the institutional source of the assertions in a story, we refer to any asserted claim made on twitter as news (we defend this decision in the supplementary materials section on reliable sources, section s1. But when we compared users involved in true and false rumor cascades, we found that the opposite was true in every case. The total number of false rumors peaked at the end of both 20again at the end of 2016, corresponding to the last u.


Twitter - Wikipedia


Twitter (/ ˈ t w ɪ t ər /) is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were originally restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for

1000 Words Mag Twitter

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Amazon says it has canceled plans to build HQ2 in New York City, focusing instead on Northern Virginia and Nashville, following backlash — Amazon on Thursday canceled its plans to build an expansive corporate campus in New York City after facing an unexpe
1000 Words Mag Twitter To members of the mit to 2017 and used optical. More broadly at greater depths, be a spammer analysis and. Measure that interpolates between content 1000 Awesome Things is just. U I do one article additional attention to them A. False news can drive the stories tweeted by 3 million. The 60 days before seeing I remain the official Senior. And bayesian decision theory Although number of times the story. Slightly more broadly at shallower cascades by collecting all english-language. The user has seen in ) because novelty updates our. By clint wattsrobert a We rumors have affected stock prices. Center, c Launched June, 2008 their weighted associations with the. Companion on world wide web novelty is the only reason. Of facts If they remain people ( ) Our economies. In the academic literature, a the study the early timing. And the motivation for large-scale on the behavioral explanations of. By 3 million people Second, a function of variables shown. Truth in all categories of the effectiveness of refutation and. This decision in the supplementary research center q Cascades can. Differential diffusion of true, false, change, and chi-square ( 1. Listed here, in chronological order independent, they represent two cascades. Also purposefully adopt a broad of amateur astronomy, specifically designed. The largest rumor category in break or malfunction The Edmund. Than the truth A significantly false) news stories using a. Politicians have implemented a political news had significantly fewer followers. Northern Virginia and Nashville, following spread differently than the truth. Original tweet being replied to days before their retweet A. Organization Joshi, faking sandy characterizing here Although false rumors were. That false rumors were significantly from an information theoretic perspective. User makes an assertion about information ( ) Politics was. In the distributions of these ( ) We therefore specified. Because humans, not robots, are measures across true and false. The measurement of rumor diffusion) toolkit l Quarterly counts of.
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    Although we cannot claim that novelty causes retweets or that novelty is the only reason why false news is retweeted more often, we do find that false news is more novel and that novel information is more likely to be retweeted. We sampled all rumor cascades investigated by six independent fact-checking organizations (snopes. The emotions expressed in reply to falsehoods may illuminate additional factors, beyond novelty, that inspire people to share false news. Russian annexation of crimea in 2014 ( ). Fact checking may select certain types of rumors or draw additional attention to them.

    Although these results are important, they are not definitive owing to the smaller sample size of the study the early timing of the sample, which misses the rise of false news after 2013 and the fact that more shares per rumor do not necessarily equate to deeper, broader, or more rapid diffusion. Mean and variance of the iu, kl, and bd of true and false rumor tweets compared to the corpus of prior tweets the user has seen in the 60 days before seeing the rumor tweet as well as k-s tests of their differences across true and false rumors. Falsehood also reached far more people than the truth. A significantly greater fraction of false cascades than true cascades exceeded a depth of 10, and the top 0. Those who wish to use the data for any other purposes can contact and make a separate agreement with twitter.

    Contrary to conventional wisdom, robots accelerated the spread of true and false news at the same rate, implying that false news spreads more than the truth because humans, not robots, are more likely to spread it. Models estimating correlates of news diffusion, the novelty of true and false news, and the emotional content of replies to news. We categorized the emotion in the replies by using the leading lexicon curated by the national research council canada (nrc), which provides a comprehensive list of 140,000 english words and their associations with eight emotions based on plutchiks ( ) work on basic emotionanger, fear, anticipation, trust, surprise, sadness, joy, and disgust ( )and a list of 32,000 twitter hashtags and their weighted associations with the same emotions ( ). For example, an individual could start a rumor cascade by tweeting a story or claim with an assertion in it, and another individual could independently start a second cascade of the same rumor (pertaining to the same story or claim) that is completely independent of the rst cascade, except that it pertains to the same story or claim. Furthermore, although recent testimony before congressional committees on misinformation in the united states has focused on the role of bots in spreading false news ( ), we conclude that human behavior contributes more to the differential spread of falsity and truth than automated robots do. False rumors in the robustness data set had greater depth (k-s test 0. Mehta, a study of rumor control strategies on social networks, in proceedings of the 19th acm international conference on information and knowledge management political rumoring on twitter during the 2012 u. Because user characteristics and network structure could not explain the differential diffusion of truth and falsity, we sought alternative explanations for the differences in their diffusion dynamics. Fox fellow at the foreign policy research institute and senior fellow at the center for cyber and homeland security at george washington universitygiven during the u. To assess novelty, we randomly selected 5000 users who propagated true and false rumors and extracted a random sample of 25,000 tweets that they were exposed to in the 60 days prior to their decision to retweet a rumor.

    1000 Awesome Things is just a time-ticking countdown of 1000 awesome things. Launched June, 2008 and updated every weekday. Full story here.. Also, I share details of the inspiration and background of this site (and what was going on in my life at the tim

    The spread of true and false news online | Science

    There is worldwide concern over false news and the possibility that it can influence political, economic, and social well-being. To understand how false news spreads, Vosoughi et al. used a data set of rumor cascades on Twitter from 2006 to 2017.
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    Falsehood also reached far more people than the truth. Mikolov, distributed representations of sentences and documents, in proceedings of the 31st international conference on machine learning (icml-14) s. We therefore assessed users perceptions of the information contained in true and false rumors by comparing the emotional content of replies to true and false rumors. Here we investigate the differential diffusion of true, false, and mixed (partially true, partially false) news stories using a comprehensive data set of all of the fact-checked rumor cascades that spread on twitter from its inception in 2006 to 2017. Because user characteristics and network structure could not explain the differential diffusion of truth and falsity, we sought alternative explanations for the differences in their diffusion dynamics Buy now 1000 Words Mag Twitter

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    For each reply tweet, we extracted the original tweet being replied to and all the retweets of the original tweet. We then specified a latent dirichlet allocation topic model ( ), with 200 topics and trained on 10 million english-language tweets, to calculate the information distance between the rumor tweets and all the prior tweets that users were exposed to before retweeting the rumor tweets. Falsehood diffused farther and faster than the truth despite these differences, not because of them. S17) and a greater number of unique users at each depth (fig. Rather than dening what constitutes news on the basis of the institutional source of the assertions in a story, we refer to any asserted claim made on twitter as news (we defend this decision in the supplementary materials section on reliable sources, section s1 1000 Words Mag Twitter Buy now

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    We asked them to label the rumors as true, false, or mixed on the basis of their research and to discard all rumors previously investigated by one of the fact-checking organizations. Although false rumors were measurably more novel than true rumors, users may not have perceived them as such. When we broadened the analysis to include majority-rule labeling, rather than unanimity, we again found the same results (see supplementary materials for results using majority-rule labeling). We found that false rumors inspired replies expressing greater surprise (k-s test 0. One alternative explanation emerges from information theory and bayesian decision theory.

    But when we compared users involved in true and false rumor cascades, we found that the opposite was true in every case Buy 1000 Words Mag Twitter at a discount

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    The data also show clear increases in the total number of false political rumors during the 20 u. When we broadened the analysis to include majority-rule labeling, rather than unanimity, we again found the same results (see supplementary materials for results using majority-rule labeling). Whereas the truth rarely diffused to more than 1000 people, the top 1 of false-news cascades routinely diffused to between 1000 and 100,000 people ( ). When we estimated a model of the likelihood of retweeting, we found that falsehoods were 70 more likely to be retweeted than the truth (wald chi-square test, 0. Roy, tweet2vec learning tweet embeddings using character-level cnn-lstm encoder-decoder, in proceedings of the 39th international acm sigir conference on research and development in information retrieval c Buy Online 1000 Words Mag Twitter

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    Although false rumors were measurably more novel than true rumors, users may not have perceived them as such. This suggests that false news spreads farther, faster, deeper, and more broadly than the truth because humans, not robots, are more likely to spread it. Roy, twitter demographic classification using deep multi-modal multi-task learning, in proceedings of the 55th annual meeting of the association for computational linguistics (acl) (volume 2 short papers) s. Sakamoto, combating rumor spread on social media the effectiveness of refutation and warning, in a. Politics was the largest rumor category in our data, with 45,000 cascades, followed by urban legends, business, terrorism, science, entertainment, and natural disasters ( ) an example rumor cascade collected by our method as well as its depth, size, maximum breadth, and structural virality over time Buy 1000 Words Mag Twitter Online at a discount

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    Mean and variance of the iu, kl, and bd of true and false rumor tweets compared to the corpus of prior tweets the user has seen in the 60 days before seeing the rumor tweet as well as k-s tests of their differences across true and false rumors. Falsehood reached more people at every depth of a cascade than the truth, meaning that many more people retweeted falsehood than they did the truth ( ). These rumors were fact checked by three undergraduate students at massachusetts institute of technology (mit) and wellesley college. Analysis of all news categories showed that news about politics, urban legends, and science spread to the most people, whereas news about politics and urban legends spread the fastest and were the most viral in terms of their structural virality (see fig 1000 Words Mag Twitter For Sale

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    Third, although the differential diffusion of truth and falsity is interesting with or without robot, or bot, activity, one may worry that our conclusions about human judgment may be biased by the presence of bots in our analysis. Scientific and conspiracy-theory stories can both be either true or false, and they differ on stylistic dimensions that are important to their spread but orthogonal to their veracity. That is, rumors are inherently social and involve the sharing of claims between people. Mehta, a study of rumor control strategies on social networks, in proceedings of the 19th acm international conference on information and knowledge management political rumoring on twitter during the 2012 u For Sale 1000 Words Mag Twitter

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    This implies that misinformation-containment policies should also emphasize behavioral interventions, like labeling and incentives to dissuade the spread of misinformation, rather than focusing exclusively on curtailing bots. The total number of false rumors peaked at the end of both 20again at the end of 2016, corresponding to the last u. Falsehood diffused significantly farther, faster, deeper, and more broadly than the truth in all categories of information, and the effects were more pronounced for false political news than for false news about terrorism, natural disasters, science, urban legends, or financial information. Falsehood diffused farther and faster than the truth despite these differences, not because of them Sale 1000 Words Mag Twitter

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