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Plant Cell Research Paper

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The Plant Cell (eISSN 1531-298X), is published monthly (one volume per year) by the American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB). The journal is produced by Sheridan ...

Plant Cell Research Paper

Sometimes the offspring have more nearly approached, some the one and some the other of the two original stocks, or they all incline more to one or the other side while in other cases behave like hybrids of species, but they possess greater variability of form and more pronounced tendency to revert to the original types. The two experimental plants differed in 5 characters, while at the same time those of species , and this was repeated with both hybrids the following year. The green coloring of the unripe pod in association with the same color of the stems, the leaf-veins and the with regard to this last character it must be stated that the longer of the two parental stems is usually exceeded by the hybrid, a fact which is possibly only attributable to the greater luxuriance which appears in all parts of plants when stems of very different lengths are crossed.

Gärtnerespecially in his work , has recordedvery valuable observations and quite recently wichura published the results of some profound investigations into the hybrids of thewillow. As is shown by the above demonstration the first and third experiments and the second and fourth experiments should produce precisely the same combinations, and even in the second year the result should be partially visible in the form and color of the seed. The relative numbers which were obtained for each pair of expt.

According to the opinion of both, the hybrids in outward appearance present either a form intermediate between the original , or they closely resemble either the one or the other type, and sometimes can hardly be discriminated from it. Of these 8 are constant in all characters, and each appears on the average 10 times 12 are constant in two characters, and hybrid in the third each appears on the average 19 times 6 are constant in one character and hybrid in the other two each appears on the average 43 times. For each experiment a number of pot plants were placed during the blooming period in a in the open as regards possible disturbance by insects.

The period of transformation was not alike for all species. There resulted, therefore, a division into hybrid and constant forms in the proportion of 2. It also sometimes happens that the pollen does not reach full perfection.

The offspring of 40 plants had only green pods of the offspring of 60 plants some had green, some yellow ones. Among each 5 plants which were selected in both experiments for fertilization there agreed, as the following years culture showed, with the pollen parent 1st experiment 2nd experiment --------------------------------- 2 plants ----- in all characters 3 plants ----- in 4 characters ---- 2 plants 3 ---- 2 2 ---- 1 1 character in the first experiment, therefore, the transformation was completed in the second, which was not continued further, two more fertilizations would probably have been required. The proportions in which the descendants of the hybrids develop and split up in the first and second 1 and 2 have already been carried through 6 generations 3 and 7 through 5 and 4, 5, and 6 through 4 these experiments being continued from the third generation with a small number of plants, and no departure from the rule has been perceptible.

The offspring of the hybrids of each pair of differentiating characters are, one-half, hybrid again, while the other half are constant in equal proportions having the characters of the seed and pollen parents respectively. Since in the habit of the plant no changes are perceptible during the whole period of vegetation, we must further assume that it is only possible for the differentiating elements to liberate themselves from the enforced union when the fertilizing cells are developed. In this event there occurs a gradual lengthening of the pistil during the blooming period, until the stigmatic tip protrudes at the point of the keel. Lastly, the result must show whether they, in their entirety, observe a regular behavior in their hybrid unions, and whether from these facts any conclusion can be reached regarding those characters which possessa subordinate significance in the type. Their was very limited from 17 plants, which together developed many hundreds of flowers, only 49 seeds in all were obtained.


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Plant Cell Research Paper

Experiments on Plant Hybridization - Wikipedia
"Experiments on Plant Hybridization" (German: Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden) is a seminal paper written in 1865 and published in 1866 by Gregor Mendel, an ...
Plant Cell Research Paper Although this opinion cannot be unconditionally accepted we find on the other hand in gärtners experiments a noteworthy confirmation of that supposition regarding variability of cultivated plants which has already beenexpressed. If the reproductive cells be of the same kind and agree with the foundation cell of the mother plant, then the development of the new individual will follow the same law which rules the mother plant. Also, during the whole flowering period, the more important variations in temperature must be taken into account, and the partial hastening or delaying of the flowering which may result therefrom. This is precisely the case with the pea hybrids.
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    Therefore, the participators in the fertilization are in the process of fertilization each pollen form unites on an average equally often with each egg cell form, so that each of the four ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab ab abb aab aabb abb ab aabb aab aab aabb ab abb aabb aab abb ab in precisely similar fashion is the developmental series of hybrids exhibited when are conjoined in them. For the determination of the proportion in which the separation of the forms with the constantly persistent character results, the two first experiments are especially important, since in these a larger number of plants can be compared. From 15 plants only were well-developed seeds obtained. Should the color development really happen in this way, we could offer an explanation of the case above described, namely that of the white flowers and seed-coat color only appeared once among 31 plants of the first. The length of the stem is very various in some forms it is, however, a constant character for each, in so far that healthy plants, grown in the same soil, are only subject to unimportant variations in this character.

    For each experiment a number of pot plants were placed during the blooming period in a in the open as regards possible disturbance by insects. The second group includes the signs these are constant in one character and hybrid in another, and vary in the next generation only as regards the hybrid-character. With very extended developmental series it could not in fact be otherwise. Let us, for instance, assume that the plants selected for experiment differed in 3 characters, and the species by repeated fertilization with the pollen of the latter the hybrids resulting from the first these in the second year of experiment are united again with the pollen cells occurs once in the series of 8 terms, it is consequently little likely that it would be missing among the experimental plants, even were these raised in a smaller number, and the transformation would be perfected already by a second fertilization. In the opinion of renowned physiologists, for the purpose of propagation one pollen cell and one egg cells unite in phanerogams into a single cell, which is capable by organism.

    Whether the plan uponwhich the separate experiments were conducted and carried out was the best suited to attain the desired end is left to the friendly decision of the reader. These are either round or roundish, the depressions, if any, occur on the surface, being always only shallow or they are irregularly angular and deeply wrinkled (p. The offspring of 40 plants had only green pods of the offspring of 60 plants some had green, some yellow ones. Various force us to the conclusion that our cultivated plants, with few exceptions, are , whose further development in conformity with law is varied and interrupted by frequent. There participate consequently in the fertilization will become united with each separate egg cell. In this way the production would be rendered possible of as many sorts of egg and pollen cells as there are combinations possible of the formative elements. The reproductive cells which are formed in their seed vessels and it is placed beyond doubt that for the formation of the new embryo a perfect union of the elements of both reproductive cells must take place. The offspring of 28 plants inherited the long axis, of those of 72 plants some the long and some the short axis. A definite selection was consequently only possible with the first experiment with the second the selection had to be made at random, merely. A perfect agreement in the numerical relations was, however, not to be expected since in each fertilization, even in normal cases, some egg cells remain undeveloped or subsequently die, and many even of the well-formed seeds fail to is also limited in so far that while it demands the formation of an equal number of the various sorts of egg and pollen cells, it does not require that this should apply to each separate hybrid with mathematical exactness.

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    Their was very limited from 17 plants, which together developed many hundreds of flowers, only 49 seeds in all were obtained. The development of the hybrids when the original parents differ in 3 characters results therefore according to the following expression abc abc abc abc abc abc abc abc 2abcc 2abcc 2abcc 2abcc 2abbc 2abbc 2abbc 2abbc 2aabc 2aabc 2aabc 2aabc 4abbcc 4abbcc 4aabcc 4aabcc 4aabbc 4aabbc 8aabbcc. Trials with this character were only begun last year. In addition to the sharply defined characters, where it is a question of greatly or less similarity, those characters must also be taken into account which are often difficult to define in words, but yet suffice, as every plant specialist knows, to give the forms a peculiar appearance Buy now Plant Cell Research Paper

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    This peculiarity is also confined to the individual and is not inherited by the offspring. For each separate trial in the following experiments 100 plants were selected which displayed the dominant character in the first generation, and in order to ascertain the significance of this, ten seeds of each were expt. A differential may easily escape the single observer, which although at the outset may appear to be unimportant, yet accumulate to such an extent that it must not be ignored in the total result. This experiment was practically confined to a small plant group, and is now, after eight years pursuit, concluded in all. Among 565 plants which were raised from round seeds of the first generation, 193 yielded round seeds only, and remained therefore constant in this character 372, however, gave both round and wrinkled seeds, in the proportion of 31 Plant Cell Research Paper Buy now

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    There resulted therefore from the in all the experiments, therefore, there appeared all the forms which the proposed theory demands, and they came in nearly equal numbers. It would, however, be well worth while to follow up the development of color in hybrids by similar experiments, since it is probable that in this way we might learn the significance of the extraordinary variety in the so far, little at present is known with certainty beyond the fact that the color of the flowers in most ornamental plants is an extremely variable character. The period of transformation was not alike for all species. The gray seed-coats become dark brown in boiling water. The various forms of peas selected for crossing showed differences in length and color of the stem in the size and form of the leaves in the position, color, size of the flowers in the length of the flower stalk in the color, form, and size of the pods in the form and size of the seeds and in the color of the seed-coats and of the (endosperm) Buy Plant Cell Research Paper at a discount

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    Let us, for instance, assume that the plants selected for experiment differed in 3 characters, and the species by repeated fertilization with the pollen of the latter the hybrids resulting from the first these in the second year of experiment are united again with the pollen cells occurs once in the series of 8 terms, it is consequently little likely that it would be missing among the experimental plants, even were these raised in a smaller number, and the transformation would be perfected already by a second fertilization. The offspring of 28 plants inherited the long axis, of those of 72 plants some the long and some the short axis. The hybrid forms as many kinds of egg cells as there are constant combinations possible of the characters therein,and one of these is always of the same kind as that of the fertilizing that even from the second fertilization there may result a constant form identical with that of the pollen parent Buy Online Plant Cell Research Paper

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    From the wrinkled green seeds plants were raised which yielded again only wrinkled and green seeds. The two experimental plants differed in 5 characters, while at the same time those of species , and this was repeated with both hybrids the following year. For each experiment a number of pot plants were placed during the blooming period in a in the open as regards possible disturbance by insects. It is seen how rash it must be under such circumstances to draw from the external resemblances of hybrids conclusions as to their internal nature. Among these the separate classes appeared in the numbers following class flower color stem --------------------------------------------- 1 violet-red long 47 times 2 white long 40 3 violet-red short 38 4 white short 41 , experiments were also made on a small scale and results obtained in perfect agreement Buy Plant Cell Research Paper Online at a discount

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    Two experiments were made with a considerable number of plants. Many others, on the other hand, which were similarly protected, yielded progeny which were more or less variously colored and marked. It is willingly granted that by cultivation the origination of new is favored, and that by mans labor many varieties are acquired which, under natural conditions, would be lost but nothing justifies the assumption that the tendency to formation of varieties is so extraordinarily increased that the species speedily lose all stability, and their offspring diverge into an endless series of extremely variable forms. The spotting also frequently appears even when it is absent as a parental character Plant Cell Research Paper For Sale

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    If an average equality of in all plants in all generations be assumed, and if, furthermore, each hybrid forms seed of which one-half yields hybrids again, while the other half is constant to both characters in equal proportions, the ratio of numbers for the offspring in each generation is seen by the following summary, in which the hybrid forms. The selection of the plant group which shall serve for experiments ofthis kind must be made with all possible care if it be desired toavoid from the outset every risk of questionable results. We arrive at the full number of the classes of the series by the combination of the expressions this experiment was made in precisely the same way as the previous one For Sale Plant Cell Research Paper

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    The hybrids form 8 various kinds of egg and pollen cells , and each pollen form unites itself again on the average once with each form of egg cell. It is then easily seen that from the combination of the separate developmental series a complete color-series must result. Among these the separate classes appeared in the numbers following class flower color stem --------------------------------------------- 1 violet-red long 47 times 2 white long 40 3 violet-red short 38 4 white short 41 , experiments were also made on a small scale and results obtained in perfect agreement. The plants raised therefrom yielded seeds of four all were sown the following year. It is therefore demonstrated that, of those forms which posses the dominant character in the first generation, two-thirds have the hybrid-character, while one-third remains constant with the dominant character Sale Plant Cell Research Paper

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